Wednesday, August 26, 2020

Milk Plant Essay Example for Free

Milk Plant Essay Exercises identified with different milk gathering happen in this milk gathering dock. Clearly, this area ought to have sufficient space for emptying of jars, inspecting, reviewing, gauging, testing and capacity of milk and cleaning of jars. For the most part this RMRD is furnished with interconnected chain transports to move the jars from the emptying point to the gauge balance and from the outlet of the can washer to the stacking point. Other hardware that discover a spot in this RMRD incorporate gauge balance, dump tank, can washer and so on. Milk Processing Section It is situated close to the RMRD segment. This area will be extensive enough to oblige milk chiller, pasteurizer (normally HTST in enormous dairies), homogenizer, cream separator, milk stockpiling tanks, Cleaning In Place tanks (CIP tanks) and reconstitution unit. Crude milk tanks are commonly situated at a raised level Milk Filling Section Sachet recording machines are introduced in this area. Normalized, purified milk is put away in tanks situated at more significant level than the ground to encourage gravity taking care of. The topped off pockets are moved by transport line and put away in cases and thusly the containers are moved to the chilling chamber which is situated close to the milk filling area. Promptly close to the milk filling segment is the container washer room which supplies cleaned cartons to the filling segment consistently. Milk Production Section This segment is found contiguous the milk preparing area. The overflow fat got during the cream division activity is handled as cream and this area incorporates cream stockpiling tanks, margarine agitate, spread dissolving tank, ghee boilers, ghee stockpiling tanks and ghee filling and bundling units. Profound cooler fit for cutting down the temperatures up to - 30Â °C is kept in this segment for protecting the dairy items. Result area This room is situated close to the milk item segment. The gear and the utensils that discover a spot in this segment incorporate casein drying unit, casein tank, acrid cream separator, spread stir for sharp cream and offices to deal with soured milk. Parlor Products Section In this area, hardware for the worth included items like dessert, peda, masala spread milk, shrikhand and so on are given. Milk Drying Section. In a greater dairy, milk consolidating and drying units are generally introduced. This incorporate milk gathering plant, dense milk tanks, homogenizer, splash or drum drying gear, nitrogen bundling chamber, and tins and container bundling units. Quality Control Laboratory The quality control area is commonly situated close or if nothing else effectively available to the crude milk getting dock. It has offices to test the liquid approaching milk, milk items testing, bundling materials testing, bacteriological and mycological examination and AGMARK reviewing segments. Normally, this segment suits all the gear required for the quality control tests. Refrigeration and Boiler Sections Though thought to be helper to the fundamental dairy tasks, the refrigeration and evaporator areas by the by, do assume a crucial job in the preparing of milk and dairy items. They can be housed in the principle dairy building itself or situated in a different structure adjoining the fundamental plant. The refrigeration area comprises of smelling salts blowers, recipients, chilled water tanks, and so forth. Condensers are normally situated on the top of the refrigeration segment or outside the structure. The evaporator area incorporates the boilers, water relaxing units, water tanks for delicate water stockpiling and coal stockpiling or heater oil stockpiling segment. UTILITY Power utilized 11kv Transformer-750VA transformer(step somewhere near) utilizing it we step down voltage levels from 33kv to 11kv for circulation to substations where the 11kv is additionally ventured down to 415v. [pic] Low pressure board is utilized Metering Panel Board-These Metering Panel Boards are made of16/2mm/2. 5 mm cold rolled, mellow steel metal clad, detached, completely encased, desk area type, completely compartmentalized, open air/indoor establishments and reasonable for procedure on 11kV, 3ph, 50Hz. , and AC earthed framework. The board contains the types of gear and segments total with transport bar interconnections, control wiring, assignment marks, alert notification, EB fixing and cushion locking offices any place required. [pic] MV PANEL-The Switchboards are planned and created remembering future extension of the Industry. All the fenced in areas are created out of 16/14 SWG CRCA steel sheets and they are additionally powder covered [pic] DISTRIBUTION PANEL Distribution Panels or board is a sort of segment of power flexibly framework that is utilized for the division of electrical force feed into auxiliary circuits. It gives a defensive wire or electrical switch in a typical fenced in area. There is arrangement of a primary switch, at least one lingering [pic] STEAM-PRESSURE OF STEAM-14kg/cm2, 14 bar Types of Boilers There are a wide range of kinds of boilers in the engine compartment today in an assortment of warming applications. There are two fundamental classes of boilers among the various sorts of boilers and those two classifications are steam and high temp water boilers. Both of those classifications can be powered by oil, gas, or electric (albeit electric is unprecedented for steam boilers). They have various structures and channeling arrangements as a steam heater framework is intended to transformed the water into steam and uses gravity and strain to convey the warmth and the high temp water kettle frameworks are intended to just make boiling water to be coursed (by a circulator or siphon) through a funneling framework to give heat. Commonly, high temp water boilers are more effective than steam boilers for a couple of reasons. To start with, there is less warmth misfortune all through the high temp water channeling and the shell of the evaporator in light of the fact that the heated water kettle works at a lower temperature than the steam heater. This implies there is less warmth misfortune all through the whole evaporator and channeling framework. Furthermore, in light of the fact that the high temp water kettle works at a lower temperature, it requires less fuel or vitality to change over into heat. What sort of evaporator do you have in your engine compartment? [pic] Water Tube Boilers Water tube boilers have various cylinders within it that have water coursing through them. Hot ignition gases encompass these cylinders and a trade of warmth is acknowledged from the burning gases to the cylinders and water. The water tube boilers can be worked for higher limits and weights than the fire tube boilers in light of the fact that the steam as well as heated water is kept in the cylinders. Water Tube Boiler sizes go from 10 million BTU/h boilers all route up to 300 million BTU/h and these boilers are commonly found in medium to enormous business/mechanical utilize and can be either steam or heated water kettle in low to high weight heater applications. These boilers can be either oil kettle, coal evaporator, or gas terminated heater and pass hot vent gases around tubes loaded up with water. Evaporator burning efficiencies rely upon a few components for these boilers including: regardless of whether it is steam kettle or high temp water heater, ignition controls, pipe dampers, recurrence of check ups and additionally air and additionally water pre-warmers (kettle economizers). Fire Tube Boilers Fire tube boilers bind the ignition procedure and gases in cylinders and water circles around these cylinders. Some fire tube boilers have turbulators within the cylinders to cause choppiness of the pipe gases. This builds the warmth retention into the water which makes the kettle increasingly effective. Fire Tube Boilers extend in sizes from . 6 million BTU/h up to 50 million BTU/h heater these utilization hot pipe gases going through cylinders lowered in water commonly found in medium to huge evaporator business/modern utilize and can be either steam or high temp water boilers in low to medium weight applications. Again similarly as with the water tube evaporator burning efficiencies rely upon a few factors as noted previously. There are different names applied to various fire tube boilers, for example, Scotch Marine, train, firebox, and vertical or level bring tube back. Consolidating Boilers [pic] Condensing Hot Water Boiler Between steam and high temp water and water cylinder and fire tube boilers there exists regular environmental boilers and gathering boilers. The consolidating kettle is definitely more productive than the ordinary air heater. A gathering heater normally has two warmth exchangers and assimilates more warmth from the pipe gases. It really ingests such a great amount of warmth from the gases that dampness in the pipe gases consolidates and needs a channel to deplete off. This consolidated fluid is profoundly destructive and it is vital for the producer to assemble the gathering kettle out of exceptional materials to forestall consumption to the hardware. Ordinarily, the vent is PVC funnel or treated steel and is impervious to the destructive impacts of the buildup. Furthermore, on the grounds that so much warmth is expelled from the pipe gases, the results of the ignition procedure need assistance to be securely vented. Normally a fan is utilized to either push or haul these gases out of a vent. Consolidating boilers are ordinarily appraised at 90 or more productivity evaluations though the traditional environmental boilers are commonly evaluated at around 80 percent in addition to. Traditional Atmospheric Boilers Conventional barometrical boilers don't utilize a blower engine to evacuate the ignition side-effect gases. Rather they depend on the burning gases to have enough warmth to make the gases ascend through the vent and directed securely outside of the residence. In the event that for reasons unknown an excessive amount of warmth is expelled from the vent gases buildup can happen inside the pipe or stack. This buildup can have destructive impacts to both the vent and the smokestack and cause extreme issues. It is significant that a certified HVAC professional investigate the evaporator and that they check of the temperature of the pipe gases. Utilizing a burning analyzer, a certified professional can tune the kettle to ensure that the temperat

Saturday, August 22, 2020

History of Country Music

Velvet Stalnaker UNV 104 January 7, 2012 Professor Salcido History of Southern Music Southern music is currently called blue grass music and is mainstream in a wide range of spots. It is for individuals from varying backgrounds. In any case, when we take a gander at blue grass music today and from years prior is it the equivalent? , When did it become well known? furthermore, , How has the music changed throughout the years? Southern music referred to today as down home music got famous in the 1920’s. This was music that depended on people music of cattle rustlers in the southeast (Collins English Dictionary, 2003). In the majority of the early music the craftsman played stringed instruments like fiddles, guitars, banjos and some were in any event, playing harmonicas. At the point when this sort of music began a few people called it â€Å"hillbilly music† (Tower, 2000). Blue grass music is as I would like to think alleviating and recounts to a story. Outsiders resulted in these present circumstances world more than 300 years back playing and tuning in to what they called old world music. The greater part of the individuals that were playing this music were playing banjos and guitars. Southern music is as yet utilized today in places of worship everywhere throughout the world it is called southern gospel. This sort of music is utilized in memorial services and furthermore festivities everywhere throughout the world. A great many people think this kind of music is about individuals crying about their lives. Numerous southern down home melodies recount anecdotes about the artist. Southern music is utilized today in certain schools and holy places every day. Some administration bunches in the United States additionally use melodies with southern foundation. â€Å"The south is the support of American music. †3 This can be seen through numerous sorts of music. Southern music is utilized in motion pictures. Southern impact help to make well known tunes like â€Å"Sweet Home Alabama†, â€Å"Free bird†, and â€Å"Still in Saigon† top picks among a wide range of kinds of individuals today. Despite the fact that southern music is for hillbillies, southern music is compelling on the grounds that southern music from the past is as yet utilized in lives today and southern music began numerous well known tunes despite everything utilized today. This is the reason southern music isn't only for hillbillies. Reference Page 1-http://www. urbandictionary. com 2-http://www. wbir. com by Dave Paulson â€Å"The Tennessean† Who tunes in to Country music? 3-http:www. credoreference. com. library. gcu. edu:2048/passage/abcarcsouth/music Here is the area of the style control that may assist you with your references. Source Citations All citations, summarizes, and synopses must be referenced. Just regular information shouldn't be refered to. If all else fails, refer to the material. This is an issue of written falsification; if it's not too much trouble reference GCU’s strategy on Plagiarism in the University Policy Handbook. In-content references should take note of the author(s) and the distribution date for a summary. For an immediate citation, references ought to incorporate author(s), date, and page number. See the accompanying models: â€Å"Ethics looks at virtues and the gauges of moral behavior† (Ornstein and Levine, 2008, p. 162). Ornstein and Levine (2008) communicated their anxiety with NCLB and its impact on state funded instruction. Reference Examples: Books Book by a Single Author, A. A. (Year). Book title: Subtitle after colon. Area, State Abbreviation: Publisher. [Some distribution areas don't require a state shortening or nation. ] Daresh, J. C. (2004). Starting the associate principalship: A down to earth manage for new School directors. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Book by More than One Author, A. A. , Author, B. B. , and Author, C. C. (Year). Book title: Subtitle after colon. Area, State Abbreviation: Publisher. Dark, J. A. , and English, F. W. (1986). What they don’t inform you in schools of instruction concerning school organization. Lancaster, PA: Technomic. Hartzell, G. , Williams, R. , and Nelson, K. (1995). New voices in the field: The work lives of first-year right hand principals. Thousand Oaks, CA: Corwin. Altered Book Author, A. A. (Ed. ). (Year). Book title: Subtitle after colon. Area, State Abbreviation: Publisher. Feldman, P. R. (Ed. ). (1997). English ladies artists of the sentimental time. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University. Article or Chapter in an Edited Book Author, A. A. , and Author, B. B. (Year). Part or article title. In A. A. Editorial manager and B. B. Supervisor (Eds. ), Book title: Subtitle after colon (pp. <page numbers>). Area, State Abbreviation: Publisher. Grabe, W. , and Stoller, F. L. (2001). Perusing for scholarly purposes: Guidelines for the ESL/EFL educator. In M. Celce-Murcia (Ed. ), Teaching English as a second or unknown dialect (third ed. ) (pp. 187-203). Boston: Heinle and Heinle. Different Editions of a Book Author, A. A. (Year). Book title: Subtitle after colon (second ed. . Area, State Abbreviation: Publisher. Parker, F. , and Riley, K. (2004). Phonetics for non-language specialists: A preliminary with works out (fourth ed. ). Boston: Allyn and Bacon. Book by an Organization Name. (Year). Book title: Subtitle after colon. Area, State Abbreviation: Publisher. American Psychological Association. (2001). Distribution manual of the American Psychological Association (fifth e d. ). Washington, DC: Author. [Here, the association is both the distributer and the creator, so the word â€Å"Author† is noted instead of the publisher’s name. Reference Examples: Periodicals Article in a Journal Author, A. A. (Year). Title of article. Diary Title, Volume(Issue), Page numbers. Chappuis, S. , and Stiggins, R. (2002). Study hall evaluation for learning. Instructive Leadership, 60, 40-43. Arnold, J. B. , and Dodge, H. W. (1994). Space for all. The American School Board Journal, 181(10), 22-26. [The issue number is in enclosures; no space between the volume and issue. ] Article in a Popular Magazine Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Magazine Title, Volume(Issue), Page numbers. Mehta, P. B. (1998, June 6). Detonating legends. New Republic, 290(25), 17-19. Article in a Newspaper Author, A. A. (Year, Month Day). Article title. Paper Title, Page numbers. Schwartz, J. (1993, September 30). Stoutness influences monetary, societal position. Washington Post, pp. A1, A4. Online Periodical Article Author, A. A. , Author, B. B. , and Author, C. C. (Year). Title of article. Periodical Title, Volume(Issue), Page numbers. Recovered Month Day, Year, from URL Smith, B. M. (2004, June). What will you do on summer get-away? Phi Delta Kappan, 85(10), 722. Recovered August 18, 2004, from http://www. pdkintl. organization/kappan/k0406smi. htm Reference Examples: Electronic Resources Document from University or Government Program Web Site Author, A. A. , Author, B. B. , and Author, C. C. (Year). Title of site. Recovered Month Day, Year, from Organization Name, Specific Web Page: URL Woodford, R. (n. d. ). Fruitful practices for understudies with incapacities. Recovered August 24, 2004, from US Department of Education, Improve Student Performance: http://www. ed. gov/instructors/how/apparatuses/activity/summerworkshop/lincolncounty/edlite-slide001. tml Stand-Alone Document Author, A. A. , Author, B. B. , and Author, C. C. (Year). Title of Web webpage. Recovered Month Day, Year, from URL Black, C. (2011). Ladies and compulsion: From Betty Ford to Amy Winehouse. Recovered July 27, 2011, from http://www. psychologytoday. com/blog/the-many-faces-fixation/201107/ladies and-compulsion betty-portage amy-winehouse Stand-Alone Document, No Author or Date Title of page. (n. d. ). Recovered Month Day, Year, from URL USA swimming. (n. d. ). Recovered August 24, 2004, from http://www. usaswimming. organization/usasweb/DesktopDefault. aspx

Tuesday, August 11, 2020

first impressions of LA

first impressions of LA three days ago, after i finished squeezing all my summer clothes and important possessions into a suitcase weighing a little over 50 pounds, a stuffed backpack, and a very stuffed guitar case, i hopped on a 6 hour flight to los angeles to start my internship at PlayStations Santa Monica Studio on the God of War team.01 dope, right??? i get so many discounts woooo after dropping all of my stuff at my (nicer than expected) Airbnb, i spent an afternoon and the next day wandering around LA completing various errands 02 groceries, getting a bus card, etc. . ive never been to LA, so i formed a lot of first impressions, both good and bad. here they are: this city was not made for walking :( im used to walking almost everywhere in boston, but in the past few day ive missed an uber because i couldnt find a crosswalk to go over to where it was waiting, and had to backtrack to cross the street because the sidewalk ended on the side i had been on initially. this doesnt mean that the city was made for driving either the bus system is pretty good from what ive seen. there are very few pedestrians as well, so walking on the streets is kind of lonely. the roads are so wide. wish the sidewalks were wider :P people drive so fast?? im actually too afraid to jaywalk, which sucks, because there are only crosswalks at the traffic lights, which are all very far apartthere are no trees and the sky is so big. ive lived in new england for the vast majority of my life, and im used to seeing real trees blocking out most of the skyline, not some scraggly palm trees on the side of the road. seeing so much sky makes me uncomfortable in unquantifiable ways i feel exposed, and sort of like a giant eagle could drop out of the sky and grab me at any momentthere are so many pink houses!! theyre so cute. some of the spanish style architecture here is really aesthetic.the weather is so lovely. i wish everywhere was like this. its not too hot yet and there always seems to be a nice breeze coming from somewhere.i love being so close to the beach!! i never go to the beach and barely ever put on a swimsuit. but now, the beach is 2 miles from my work and im planning to go with other interns this week :) i started work yesterday and i think im going to have a great summer :) PlayStation is spoiling us and has lots of fun things planned for us, and im also super pumped to be working with the God of War team 03 even though i only started playing the game yesterday, whoops because theyre among the best in the industry 04 lowkey the best in the industry at the moment and im excited to learn from them :) i havent explored downtown LA at all yet, but im particularly excited for Little Tokyo because of course i am. im also going to this years LA pride parade with other MIT friends and will be attending E3 2019 with the God of War team 05 !!! we get an entire day off for it too , which is super exciting since ive wanted to go to E3 for about 5 years now :) in short, lots of fun things planned for the summer! ill try to keep blogging about it. heres a photodump of the very few pictures ive taken near where i work and live, and a couple of pictures of the few things im allowed to take pictures of at Santa Monica Studios :P the road that i work on has tons of these cute pink apartmentsmy workplace, the reserve! its a big gated complex with a microsoft office, a verizon office, and of course a playstation office :) the kratos statue at the front of the Santa Monica office :) all the swag i received on my first day!! not pictured: a brand new dualshock controller, three very nice shirts (one of which is a dev team shirt!!!), and ALL THE EMPLOYEE DISCOUNTS I GET ON SONY PRODUCTS Post Tagged ##NDAs make me feel powerful ##playstation is so cool dope, right??? i get so many discounts woooo back to text ? groceries, getting a bus card, etc. back to text ? even though i only started playing the game yesterday, whoops back to text ? lowkey the best in the industry at the moment back to text ? !!! we get an entire day off for it too back to text ?

Saturday, May 23, 2020

Overview On The Rest Of The Chapters Finance Essay - Free Essay Example

Sample details Pages: 16 Words: 4716 Downloads: 6 Date added: 2017/06/26 Category Finance Essay Type Cause and effect essay Did you like this example? This chapter provides overview about the thesis topic that will be addressed. It also demonstrates the relevancy of the study and its need and purpose and defines its objectives. This chapter includes a preliminary literature review which helped in directing the research path. Overview: Every equity investment decision must be based on solid grounds. This requires a substantive knowledge regarding investment methodologies, assessment tools, and a good sense of know-how. The academic side provides finance people with the technicalities and methods, such as the discounted dividends, discounted cash flow analysis, discounted abnormal earnings, discounted abnormal earnings growth, and price multiples (Palepu, Healy and Peek, 2010). Damodaran (2005) categorize equity valuation approaches to include discounted cash flow valuation, liquidation and accounting valuation, relative valuation and contingent claim valuation. Each approach generally will yield differing equity value based on the projections of its future returns and assumed risks, or based on its current and past performance (Penman, 2001). The choice of equity valuation method used will affect the assumed value of equity versus the asked price, thus affecting the decision of whether to invest or not. The on going debate in academic world about the superiority of one method over other presents mixed results. Jorgensen,Lee, and Yoos (2011) examination suggest that residual income valuation is more accurate than abnormal earnings growth model. On the other hand, Supattarakul and Khanthavit (2011) found that both dividend discount model and residual income model underestimate equity value. But in general, most academic literature describes dividend discounted model as the method of choice by finance professionals (Palepu et al, 2010). Don’t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Overview On The Rest Of The Chapters Finance Essay" essay for you Create order Preliminary Literature Many researchers have inspected different facets of sell-side and buy-side analysts.Palepu et al (2010, p. 407) define sell-side analysts as analysts at brokerage houses, while they define buy-side analysts as analysts that work at the direction of fund managers for various institutions. Ashton and Cianci (2007) investigated the motivational and cognitive determinants of the earnings forecasts difference between the two types. Groysberg, Healy, and Chapman (2008) found that buy-side analysts provide less accurate and more optimistic forecasts. Analysts and investors are provided by the literature with many valuation methods to choose from. Foerster and Sapp(2011) advocate the use of Gordon Growth Model, while Supattarakul and Khanthavit(2011) suggest that dividend discount modelprovides more accurate valuation than the residual income model. Steiger(2008) advocates the use of Discounted Cash Flow methods (DCF), although warning of associated massive assumptions which can create bias and modify the value of equity. These articles, among others will provide the base for academic world preference of equity valuation methods. Most of the literature advocates the use of DCF methods. However, practitioners have different views (Bing, 1971, Dukes et al, 2006). Researchers have attempted to fill the gap between literature and finance practitioners of thechoice of equity valuation methods. Pereiro (n.d.) found that 73% of financial advisors and 50% of banks and insurance firms in Argentina use DCF methods, which are lower than the 100% preference in USA. Dukes et al (2006) also found that DCF methods are used less frequently by practitioners compared to other methods. This research fits between existing works as it will examine finance practitioners preference of equity valuation methods in the emerging market of KSA, thus establishing an addition or contradiction to the works of Pereiro (n.d.) and Dukes et el (2006). The articles will aid the author in di scovering the views of academic world to equity valuation method preference, while answering the research questions of practitioners preferences. They will act as theoretical and conceptual basis for this research. Need for the study: As a CFO dealing with many investments ranging from projects appraisals to venture capitals and private equity, equity valuation is crucial in the authors line of work. Equity valuation can be conducted using various methods, such Discounted Cash Flow Model (DCF), Discounted Abnormal Earnings, and Price Multiples (PM). In finance world, the choice of method will affect the value of equity, and consequently will affect the decision to invest or not. Based on this relation, it is important to understand why finance professionals and investors choose one method over others, or whether they utilize a combination of methods and base their decision on a weighted average. Objectives of the study: The author intends to describe the relationship and examine the cause-effect reason of practitioners equity valuation method preference. This research is based on collection of facts and then deduction of reasons behind the preference. It also aims to investigate if such preference changes with the introduction of additional criteria. Methodology: The author intends to generate a quantitative research that utilizes surveys and questionnaires. The sample includes finance practitioners from various sectors in Saudi Arabia. Finance practitioners include those working in investment banks, CFOs, fund managers, financial analysts, and private equity advisors. Overview on the Rest of the Chapters: Chapter 2: Review of the Literature Examining the literature relevant to the thesis problem, reviewing different researches and studies that were conducted about the thesis topic, the research questions are formulated accordingly. Chapter 3: Methodology Describing the methodology, the approach that is used to conduct the study, the tools that are used in collecting data and the limitations faced during the survey implementation. Chapter 4: Descriptive Statistics Explaining the collected data and illustrating them in tables and graphs, then summary of the descriptive statistics findings are presented. Chapter 5: Inferential Statistics Performing statistical analysis for many factors to study their effects on the outcomes of descriptive statistics Chapter 6: Analysis of Data Analysis of data is performed, based on the statistical analysis that yielded descriptive and inferential statistics. The findings of the statistical analysis are linked to the findings in the literature revirew. Chapter 7: Conclusions and Recommendations Stating the conclusions drawn from the research, the implications of the results and then giving the recommendations based on the conclusions that were made. CHAPTER 2: LITERATURE REVIEW Chapter two explores the literature that is relevant to understanding the development of, and interpreting the results of this study. It includes the definition of the financial terms used, the purpose of this literature review is to provide the reader with a general overview of the valuation methods and all the techniques involved in the equity valuation. 2.1. STOCK DEFINITION AND CHARACTERISTICS: 2.1.1. Stock Definition: A stock is a security that represents ownership in a corporation and has claims on part of the corporations assets and earnings per share. There are two main types of stock: common and preferred. A stockholder (a shareholder) has a claim to part of the corporations assets and earnings. In other words, a shareholder is an owner of the company. Ownership is determined by the number of shares a person owns relative to the number of outstanding shares. For example, if a company has 1,000 shares of stock outstanding and an investor owns 100 shares, that investor owns and has a claim to 10% of the companys assets. Stocks are a major component of investor portfolios because historically they outperform most other investments over the long run (Bauman, Scott, Conover and Miller, 1998). 2.1.2. Methods to Value a Common Stock: Value Definition: In general, the value of an asset is the price that buyer is willing and able to pay to a willing and able seller. If both, the buyer and seller, are not willing and able then an offer does not set up the value of the asset (Capaul, Carlo, Rowley and Sharpe, 1993). Types of Value: There are several types of value, such as: Book Value: It is the carrying value on the balance sheet of the firms equity. Tangible Book Value: It is the book value minus intangible assets such as goodwill, patents, etc. Market Value: It is the price of an asset as determined in a competitive marketplace. Intrinsic Value: It is the present value of the expected future cash flows discounted at the decision makers required rate of return. Investment Styles: A. Value Investing The fundamental goal of value investing is, quite simply, to buy a stock when it is low and sell when it is high. Seems easy, right? Though it may seem like common sense, the vast majority of investors do not do this. Very few use this strategy effectively. Some of the greatest investors of all time, such as Warren Buffett and Benjamin Graham, used a value approach in their investing careers. Value investors want to see that the company is making money and that the stock is cheap relative to the value of the company. There are many ways of determining this, but perhaps the most widely used method is to look at the price-to-earnings ratio (P/E) of the company. This ratio allows the investor to quickly determine the value of the stock relative to the amount of earnings generated by the company. The lower the ratio, the better the bargain the investor is getting. B. Growth Investing: Growth investors attempt to purchase stocks that have high expected future growth rates. Some growth investors are more disciplined with regard to the price they are willing to pay for future growth. They seek growth at a reasonable price (GARP). While their emphasis may be different, GARP investors are essentially equivalent to value investors who seek future earnings growth. The fundamental goal of growth investing is to buy a stock no matter what its price is and sell it for more. Those who choose the growth approach consistently underperform the market. In the last 20 years, the SP 500 has obtained compound annual returns of 13% per year. Also in the last 20 years, small-capitalization companies (smaller than 2 billion dollars) that were considered growth obtained compound annual returns of 8.8%, worse than all other types and over 40% less that of value investment returns of 15%. C. Blend Investing: It is a mutual fund style that employs a combination of value investing and growth investing. This blending can happen in two ways. First, they can select growth stocks on a value basis. If their assessment of the growth stocks they buy on a value basis is correct, they get returns from both growth and the eventual adjustment of the stocks prices to their intrinsic value. Second, blend funds also may make pure value and pure growth investments, thus making their portfolios a blend of growth and value investments. The value/growth blend approach to investing requires the use of the valuation metrics described previously as well as a utilizing certain growth criteria. While most of the valuation metrics utilize hard facts, the growth aspect is much more difficult to understand. No one knows what will happen in the future. If someone says they do, run for the hills. If an investor views the world economy as a whole, though, he or she can get a pretty good sense of macro-economic tr ends likely to be significant in the next few years. This is not an exact science, and requires much research and a vast amount of economic knowledge. When performing this test, it becomes apparent that there are several industries that will most likely see prolonged growth in the next decade. 2.2. Others Findings: Palepu et al (2010) identify three general categories of analysts based on the purpose of their investigation. The individual investors, the sell-side analysts and the buy-side analysts value equity for differing objectives. Equity itself has various classifications, such as Initial public offerings, common stock, and privately held stocks. These factors, combined with the industry of valuation target, affect the choice of equity valuation method. Demirakos, Strong, and Walker (2001) investigated how UK investment banks value equity, and found that industry of valuation target affects the valuation method preference. Roosenboom (2007) indicated that although the choice of method used depends on industry type and firm age in case of IPOs equity valuation, valuators tend to use a weighted average of a combination of methods, giving each a rank depending on the associated factors. Roosenbooms (2007) examination of IPOs valuation by underwriters suggests that industry also play a major part in method choice, as multiples valuation is used for valuing technology, rabidly growing, and profitable companies. Mature industries and older firms IPOs are associated with dividend discount model; while economic value-added method is associated with high aggregates stock market returns IPOs. The gap between academics and practitioners regarding valuation methods preference has been identified by Dukes, Peng and English II (2006). Their results indicate that, contrary to common belief by academics, finance professionals tend to use other methods while using dividend discount model only as a check of otherapproaches (p. 99). This study comes in line with the results of Bing (1971) some forty years ago, indicating that the gap between reality and theory is still wide. METHODS THAT THE MAJORITY OF FINANCE PROFESSIONALS PREFER AND THEIR CRITERIA OF THEIR SELECTION: When trying to figure out which valuation method to use to value a stock for the first time, most investors will quickly discover the vast number of valuation techniques available to them. There are the simple ones to use, such as the comparables method, and there are the more implicated methods, such as the discounted cash flow model. Unfortunately, there is no one method that is best suited for every situation. Each stock is different, and each industry sector has unique properties that may require varying valuation approaches (Nguyen, 2011). Analysts and investors are provided by the literature with many valuation methods to choose from. Foerster and Sapp(2011) advocate the use of Gordon Growth Model, while Supattarakul and Khanthavit(2011) suggest that dividend discount modelprovides more accurate valuation than the residual income model. Steiger(2008) advocates the use of Discounted Cash Flow methods (DCF), although warning of associated massive assumptions which can create bias and modify the value of equity. These articles, among others will provide the base for academic world preference of equity valuation methods. Most of the literature advocates the use of DCF methods. However, practitioners have different views (Bing, 1971, Dukes et al, 2006). Researchers have attempted to fill the gap between literature and finance practitioners of the choice of equity valuation methods. Pereiro (n.d.) found that 73% of financial advisors and 50% of banks and insurance firms in Argentina use DCF methods, which are lower than the 100% preference in USA. Dukes et al (2006) also found that DCF methods are used less frequently by practitioners compared to other methods. This research fits between existing works as it will examine finance practitioners preference of equity valuation methods in the emerging market of KSA, thus establishing an addition or contradiction to the works of Pereiro (n.d.) and Dukes et el (2006). Studies show that the methods that a re becoming increasingly popular are those based on cash flow discounting. These methods view the company as a cash flow generator and, therefore, assessable as a financial asset. Some of the more popular valuation methods available to investors and the appropriate use for each model are as follows: Dividend Discount Model (DDM): The dividend discount model (DDM) is one of the most basic of the absolute valuation models. The justification for using dividends to value a company is that dividends represent the actual cash flows going to the shareholder, thus valuing the present value of these cash flows should give you a value for how much the shares should be worth. So, the first thing you should check if you want to use this method is if the company actually pays a dividend. Secondly, it is not enough for the company to just a pay dividend; the dividend should also be stable and predictable. The companies that pay stable and predictable dividends are typically mature companies in mature and well-developed industries. These type of companies are often best suited for this type of valuation method (Nguyen, 2011). Discounted Cash Flow Model (DCF): if the company doesnt pay a dividend or its dividend pattern is irregular, the company use the discounted cash flow model. Instead of looking at dividends, the DCF model uses a firms discounted future cash flows to value the business. The big advantage of this approach is that it can be used with a wide variety of firms that dont pay dividends. The first requirement for using this model is for the company to have predictable free cash flows, and for the free cash flows to be positive. Based on this requirement, small high-growth firms and non-mature firms will be excluded due to the large capital expenditures these companies generally face (Nguyen, 2011). Comparables Method: this method if there is no ability to value the company using any of the other models. It doesnt attempt to find an intrinsic value for the stock like the previous two valuation methods do; it simply compares the stocks price multiples to a benchmark to determine if the stock is relatively undervalued or overvalued. The rationale for this is based off of the law of one price, which states that two similar assets should sell for similar prices. The intuitive nature of this method is one of the reasons it is so popular. The reason why it can be used in almost all circumstances is due to the vast number of multiples that can be used, such as the price-to-earnings (P/E), price-to-book (P/B), price-to-sales (P/S), price-to-cash flow (P/CF), and many others. Of these ratios though, the P/E ratio is the most commonly used one because it focuses on the earnings of the company, which is one of the primary drivers of an investments value (Nguyen, 2011). P/E multiple can be used for a comparison if the company is publicly traded because the price of the stock is needed and there is a need to know the earnings of the company. Secondly, the company should be generating positive earnings because a comparison using a negative P/E multiple would be meaningless. And lastly, the earnings quality should be strong. That is, earnings should not be too volatile and the accounting practices used by management should not distort the reported earnings radically (Nguyen, 2011). These are just some of the main criteria investors should look at when choosing which ratio or multiples to use. If the P/E multiple cannot be used, they can simply look at using a different ratio such as the price-to-sales multiple (Nguyen, 2011). Despite the large number of valuation methodologies that exist, there are five that are used in over 95% of SME valuations. These are: capitalization of future maintainable earnings; discounted cash flow; net realizable assets; industry method; and, cost to create. So how these SME choose their valuation methods (Rady and Nunez, 2012) Capitalization of future maintainable earnings v alues a business at some multiple of its maintainable earnings, with the multiple being determined by the risk rating of the business. Most SMEs have a multiple somewhere between one and five times. This approach is commonly used for mature businesses where there is a history of reasonably stable earnings. The discounted cash flow method is commonly used for businesses where there is a defined time life to the business and where cash flow is reasonably predictable. Net realizable assets approach ignores the existence of any goodwill and assumes that value exists principally in the realization of the assets held by the business. This approach is commonly used for farming businesses or businesses where there is significant investment in plant equipment or other assets. Some heavy engineering or road transport businesses may use this approach. The industry method is the least scientific of all the approaches and is sometimes criticized for its lack of rigor. It assesses value by a simple formula that will be calculated against some factor of the business such as revenue, gross profits or recurring income. It is only used for small businesses and it seeks to reflect market activity. For an industry method to exist you need to have a reasonably large number of businesses in the sector, have ongoing turnover of these businesses and where some level of market information is available. The businesses all typically have a very similar business model. Examples of business sectors where an industry method does exist include newsagents, pharmacies, cafes, real estate agents and financial planning practices. The cost to create method is a more recently accepted method that has emerged due to the large number of micro businesses. It values a business on its tangible assets plus a limited premium for goodwill based on the fact that a buyer would prefer to pay such a premium for having the business established rather than incurring the cost, risk and time of tryi ng to establish a small business. This goodwill premium is normally limited to up to one year net income. WHAT ARE THE REASONS FOR CHOOSING ONE OR A COMBINATION OF METHODS? No one valuation method is perfect for every situation, but by knowing the characteristics of the company, there is ability to select a valuation method that best suits the situation. In addition, investors are not limited to just using one method. Often, investors will perform several valuations to create a range of possible values or average all of the valuations into one. The majority of financial professionals prefer using many different methods and then comparing the results, which is likely to be the wisest way to approach stock valuation. This is similar to the approach that a person uses if he/she is valuing, for example, a house, hence, he/she might check out what similar houses in a neighborhood have sold (a relative approach) while also assessing the quality of materials via a survey (similar to intrinsic valuation). Severe market dislocations demand to adjust valuations, thus, to reassess the metrics by which those valuations are derived. Economic and absolut e measures allow the analyst to filter out much of the noise in the market place and provide a theoretically sound means of determining the basic value. (Pablo Fernandez 2004). As a matter of fact, valuations are mainly relative, though, in practice most valuations are relative valuations.  This is most likely because multiple-based methods are simple and easy to relate to. According to Damodaran, a finance professor at NYU, almost 85% of equity research reports are based upon a multiple and comparables, and more than 50% of all acquisition valuations are based upon multiples (Damodaran, 2006). He also notes that, even discounted cash flow valuations used in consulting are often relative valuations masquerading as discounted cash flow valuations (the objective being to back into a number that has been obtained by using a multiple) (Damodaran, 2006). Its important to recognize that relative valuation is weighed down with issues. Firstly, it relies on accurate comparisons but no two firms are ever exactly similar in terms of their risk and growth profile. Secondly, when the companies, which a person is using as a benchmark, are themselves mispriced, relative valuation can lead him/her badly adrift. If the market, for example, is trading at a P/E ratio that is very high by historical standards, then a stock can appear cheap in relative terms but still be priced unsustainably. For the reason, as proved by experts, the best approach is likely to combine relative valuation with a healthy dose of intrinsic valuation (Reuters, 2012). DOES VALUATION PREFERENCE CHANGE WITH EXPOSURE TO ADDITIONAL EXPERIENCE? So as indicated earlier, not all businesses are valued in the same way. And as shown, there are over twenty different valuation methodologies, and applying different methods will not produce the same result. To know what a business is really worth, there is a need to identify the most appropriate valuation methodology to apply to the business (Knight, 2012). The Valuator either will have the necessary industry background or will gain the industry knowledge through research. The Valuators understanding of the business is necessary for the purpose of understanding key value drivers and risks, as well as the expected future operating results of the entity. Appropriate research will uncover variables that might impact value and affect the Valuators conclusions. At this stage, the Valuator often will assess the need for additional specialists to assist with various aspects of the valuation. The Valuator will actually assess and select from a number of different valuation approaches. The selection of the appropriate approach is based on the nature of the business, its asset base, historical performance; future expected operating performance, and other factors (Knight, 2012). It is important to note that the valuation of any entity, whether public or private, is determined at a point in time. Thus, it is the factors that exist at the valuation date and the markets future expectations at that point in time that affect the value of a business. The economic laws of supply and demand come into play in the pricing of publicly traded shares. The stock price of a publicly traded share is impacted by many issues. The issues tend to be forward looking (Knight, 2012). Unlike publicly held shares, private companies are valued in a notional setting without the direct impact of market influences. However, market and general economic conditions are considered by Business Valuators in assessing the risks and the ability of the entity to achieve expected results. A busines s valuation in a notional setting is conducted by an experienced Business Valuator with the insight and experience of an organizations senior management team (Pontoni, 2011). Valuations of privately held businesses typically are performed for purposes of strategic planning, divesting of business interests, acquisitions, corporate restructuring, succession planning, and resolving matters between shareholders and spouses(Pontoni, 2011). The Valuator will assess the future sustainable earnings of the business, often requiring some level of judgment on the part of the Valuator. The Valuator often will turn to the businesss historical performance and financial forecasts, adjusting for cost structures and revenue streams that are not normal to the operations (Knight, 2012). Redundancies must be considered in any valuation. Fair market value and normalized earnings/cash flow are adjusted for these redundancies, which may be apparent or hidden. Assessing the value of redundancies r equires experience and significant judgment (Pontoni, 2011). Inherent in the value of a going concern entity is commercial goodwill, which is attributable to the product or service, the location of the operations, the systems and processes of the operations, the customer base, and other key value attributes. The difference between the going concern value of an entity and its tangible asset base is considered goodwill. In order for goodwill to retain any value, it must be transferable with commercial value. Personal goodwill typically rests with the individual and is not transferable, and therefore has no value. The Valuator uses his/her judgment along with managements insight to assess the transferability of goodwill (Knight, 2012). A business valuation is a complex process for uncovering the true value of an enterprise through a series of questions, research and techniques. A trained and experienced Business Valuator is critical to the process (Pontoni, 2011). 2.6. CONCLUSION: Understanding the true value of the business requires first of all determining what valuation method is most appropriate. This can only be done by understanding the business and its underlying characteristics. For most businesses, by a process of elimination, the one or two most appropriate methods are determined. Failing to select the right valuation methodology can result in an assessment of value that is highly inaccurate. Valuation methodology is not simply determined by the industry or sector the person is in. It is also influenced by the size, age, profitability and other characteristics of the business. Even though several financial ratios and factors are involved with the equity-valuation process, the final figures can provide a relatively accurate assessment of a companys financial status and revenue prospects. In choosing a business valuator, consideration should be given to the practitioners credentials and experience. The purpose of the valuation often will dic tate the type and/or level of experience required by the business valuator.  However, many valuators have experience across a broad number of industries. Typically, business valuators deal with a broad range of industries since the purpose of the valuation is usually not industry specific.   Certain industries such as mining and oil and gas require certain industry expertise so there can be some industry specialization. 2.6.1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS: Based on the findings in the literature review, the research questions are formulated and are investigated accordingly in the Saudi Arabia context, these questions are: Which method do the majority of finance professionals prefer in Saudi Arabia (bankers, CFOs, fund managers, private equity investors, financial analysts, and others)? What are the reasons for choosing one or a combination of methods? Does such preference change with exposure to additional experience (education, work, research, magnitude of the investment, volatility of the market, perceived risk)?

Tuesday, May 12, 2020

Globalization And Its Impact On Society - 1637 Words

1. Introduction Globalization as ‘the acutely adamant affiliation of economies, societies and cultures into a borderless accepted communications [technology] and accumulation arrangement [is] a world-transforming process, not all which is pleasant,’ (Morrison, 2010, p. 32). Although globalization is, and will apparently abide for some time, one of ‘a lot of ambiguous and misunderstood’ concepts, there is some accepted arena to be beginning an allotment of all the confusion (White, 2008). That is the abstraction of admission and relationships that go above the immediate, bounded ambiance. ‘Globalization is the action by which all peoples and communities appear to acquaintance an added accepted economic, amusing and cultural environment; but globalization as a theory, deals with the compression of the region and accession of alertness of the region as a whole’ (Robertson, 1992, p. 8). For a social order to be completed and experimented in a group of individuals, it makes certain an offering of business and cultural basis. With business ideology, comes a great sense of power, which is important and significant for the cause of getting ahead in several other circumstances of a society. It is a power that is eligible for any reforms and several individuals determine how it can be used in a benefitting and influential manner (Giroux, 2000). A business ideology can be followed very closely and it can also have a broader inspiration from a collection if ideology points withoutShow MoreRelatedThe Impact Of Globalization On The Society1114 Words   |  5 Pages The Impact of Globalization 3 Introduction The effects of globalization are visible everywhere. The mixing of cultures and races throughout our society is everywhere. It’s on television, in our homes and woven into our workplace. This is not necessarily a new construct; it’s just more noticeable today than in the past. The Roman Empire opened all trade in Europe, Africa andRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society Essay925 Words   |  4 PagesGlobalization is the process by which different societies, culture, and how regional economies integrate through a worldwide network of political beliefs through communication, marketing, and transportation. Predominately, globalization has made a worldwide impact on many nations in numerous ways such as; politically, economically, as well as socially. Globalization has shaped the independence of various nations, thus leading to worldly affairs based on a global level. Leading to trends in cultureRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society1369 Words   |  6 Pages Globalization is a broad term used in multiple social studies classes. There are three types of globalization: cultural, economical and political. As both positive and negative views exist on globalization; using just the word globalization isn’t specific enough to understand these viewpoints. Knowing the different types of globalization will allow a person to form their own opinion whether or not each individual type of globalization has a positive or negative impact on society. Cultural globalizationRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society1311 Words   |  6 PagesGlobalization, has taken place for centuries, is the shrinking of geographic that accelerate the flows of money, goods, people and culture around the planet. Migration came when people move between countries either temporarily or permanently, to seek education and employment or to escape adverse political, environments. Culture and globalization have infinite impact on each other. Humans have never been closer together than we are today. Globalization, started from the intercontinental migrationRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society1963 Words   |  8 PagesGlobalization has been rapidly influencing businesses in today’s society. It is a way of bringing markets around the world closer together to form better partnerships and improve communication between the different countries, governments and businesses that are motivated by investments and international trading. Glob alization has been adapted to foster political and diplomatic affiliations between countries. This way of conducting business creates a competitive market place, and keeps the organizationsRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society1307 Words   |  6 PagesGlobalization is a phenomenon involving the integration of ideas circulating worldwide, connecting people from everywhere (Friedman). Globalization affects everything, but most importantly it impacts our own cultures. Culture is the way that groups of people act, believe, and live. This is crucial to life because without culture, we wouldn’t be unique. Cultures are linked together through globalization because globalization can spread cultures worldwide, altering them in the process. GlobalizationRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society942 Words   |  4 PagesGlobalization has, from the late twentieth century, led nations and their borders to be called into questions. Populations, often driven by their yout hs, now have instant access to information on everything that happened around the world. Meanwhile, and because of this globalization, states have been forced to open up to the world and to free their borders to facilitate exchanges. Therefore, people began to feel less constrained by their nationality and became what is often referred to as citizensRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society1274 Words   |  6 Pagespeople alike, yet globalization is a vastly broad and unfamiliar concept to a majority of people. Personally, before enrolling in this class, I thought I knew what the general idea of globalization was, as rudimentary and elementary as my knowledge of the topic had been. However, after only exposing myself to a minuscule amount of cultural literature throughout the course of this class thus far, I have greatly expanded my understanding of what the true meaning of globalization is: a process thatRead MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society Essay1550 Words   |   7 PagesGlobalization defines practically all facets of modern life. The jobs available to the public, the cultures people embody/emulate, the relationships individuals engage in, are all continuously altered by the profound forces of the globalizing process. Capital, people, images, commodities and ideology transcend national borders, and information races around the globe at accelerating speeds (Inda 4). The theme of globalization has emerged generating considerable amounts of controversy in its wake,Read MoreGlobalization And Its Impact On Society Essay1980 Words   |  8 Pagesphenomenon is called globalization. As humans continue to advance technologically, we, as humans, will become more unified. This unification has many benefits. We will be able to work together on an economical, political, and social level. The state-of-the-art capabilities in commerce and trading between countries globalization fosters immense economical growth. Consequently, this growth will lead to an increase in jobs and overall economic health. Nevertheless, some claim that globalization will have certain

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

The Lord of the Rings in the 21st Century Free Essays

Films or movies are representative of cultures and the nature of the generation from which it is spun. Films or movies seem to represent a piece of reality within them that seeks to inform its viewers, transform thoughts and ideals of its audience, influence change, and such. However, in this case, the role of the film or movie is to represent our society as it is now in the 21st century. We will write a custom essay sample on The Lord of the Rings in the 21st Century or any similar topic only for you Order Now   The Lord of the Rings trilogy, adapted from the books written by J. R. R. Tolkien, represents our generation in the 21st century as it illustrates the war between good and evil that we are battling at present. We exist in a world in chaos, where nations battle for peace and harmony amidst a war-stricken world, and yet like the purpose driven by the Fellowship of the Ring, the people struggle and hope that we may be able to withstand the turmoil to reach tranquility. The Lord of the Rings Trilogy follows the structure of a typical â€Å"good versus evil† movie. The theme was instigated by encompassing feelings of fear – fear from being corrupted and restricted by the malevolent and iniquitous nature of man. Moreover, the vulnerability of man to be seduced by power and authority establishes the central theme of the trilogy. The evil that entices man will lead him to destroy the peace and goodness that exists on earth and seek to annihilate everyone who dares to oppose him in his quest for supremacy. This poses the thought that man is feeble, unable to resist his surrender to wickedness for his personal vested interests. Sauron, the antagonist in the film trilogy, represents the greed for power. The ring, which Sauron seeks, is the symbolism of power, and with this power, the ability to rule all of earth according to his desires. Perhaps this builds on one cultural myth that illustrates the growing need of man to earn power or a valuable position in society. As the world grows and deteriorates into a society that nurtures unfairness, inequality, deceit, war, value for money and status rather than life, the mind set of people grows and changes along with it. This kind of society builds on competition, such that the more power you have, the more authority you gain to obtain what you want and need. Moreover, this kind of society has instilled in the minds of the people that they need to struggle and compete with other people no matter the cost, just to obtain power. Sauron is greed that grows inside every human being, always in search for that ring of power, believing it to be their saving grace to survive in the mess of the world. On a more practical or technical perspective, the society that we live in at present is more of a capitalist society. The foundation of capitalism is built on the kind of competition already discussed in the previous paragraph. People compete for ownership and profit, without being controlled or restricted, which will lead them to occupy a highly revered position. Under the context of business, capitalists manipulate the people into purchasing what they sell in order to earn profit and obtain ownership over the majority. Moreover, capitalists compete among themselves and will do everything at all costs to obtain an advantage over competitors. Like the characters of Isildur and Smeagol (Gollum) in the trilogy, capitalists have been corrupted by the greed for power (Sauron and the ring). Isildur was a great king and Smeagol was an innocent hobbit, however, their brief possession of the one ring has corrupted them. Isildur chose not to destroy the ring but keep it for himself in order to maintain his position as king, while Smeagol became fixated on the ring which hindered him from having a good and happy life. This is similar with what is happening now. Capitalists have built a world according to their terms where people are urged to earn more money in order to spend it on what capitalism has dictated as their wants and needs – and this is all motivated by greed. Instead of thinking about equality and justice, capitalists chose to be in power and from there obtain more of it by relying on the weaknesses of the people who are at a disadvantage. The people too, who submit to the deceit that capitalists impose on them, are being tempted like Smeagol. People nowadays are never happy about earning a regular salary – they have to earn more. People are not contented with having a roof above them – it has to be a big house with large windows, a pool, overlooking the mountains, etc. The discontentment is caused by the influence of capitalists for people to have more, and by having more, they mean having more from them. How to cite The Lord of the Rings in the 21st Century, Papers

Sunday, May 3, 2020

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as mahatma Essay Example For Students

Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as mahatma Essay Gandhi, was a Indian nationalist leader, who established his countrys freedom through a nonviolent revolution. Gandhi became a leader in a difficult struggle, the Indian campaign for home rule. He believed and dedicated his life to demonstrating that both individuals and nations owe it to themselves to stay free, and to allow the same freedom to others. Gandhi was one of the gentlest of men, a devout and almost mystical Hindu, but he had and iron core of determination. Nothing could change his convictions. Some observers called him a master politician. Others believed him a saint. Gandhi became a leader in a difficult struggle, the Indian campaign for home rule. He worked to reconcile all classes and religious sects. Gandhi meant not only technical self-government but also self-reliance.After World War I, in which he played an active part in recruiting campaigns, he launched his movement of passive resistance to Great Britain. When the Britain government failed to make amends, Gandhi established an organized campaign of noncooperation. Through India, streets were blocked by squatting Indians who refused to rise even when beaten by the police. He declared he would go to jail even die before obeying anti-Asian Law. Gandhi was arrested, but the British were soon forced to release him. Economic independence for India, involving the complete boycott of British goods, was made a result of Gandhis self-ruling movement. The economic aspects of the movement were serious, for the exploitation of Indian villagers by British industrialists has resulted in extreme poverty in the country and the virtual destruction of Indian home industries. As a solution for such poverty, Gandhi supported revival of cottage industries; he began to use a spinning wheel as a token of the return to the simple village life he preached, and of the renewal of native Indian Industries. Gandhi became the international symbol of a free India. He lived a spiritual and ascetic life of prayer, fasting, and meditation. He employed propaganda, agitation, demonstration, boycott, noncooperation, parallel government , and strikes. He refused earthly possessions, he wore the loincloth and shawl of the lowliest Indian and lived on vegetables, fruit juices, and goats milk. Indians thought of him as a saint and began to call him Mahatma. Mahatma meant great soul, a title reserved for the greatest leaders. Gandhis nonviolence was the expression of a way of life understood in the Hindu religion. By the Indian practice of nonviolence, Gandhi said, Great Britain would eventually consider violence useless and would leave India. The Mahatmas political and spiritual hold on India was so great that the British authorities dared not to interfere with him. In 1921 the Indian National Congress, the group that spearheaded the movement for nationhood, gave Gandhi complete executive authority, with the right of naming his own successor. A series of armed revolts against Great Britain broke out, culminating in such violence that Gandhi confessed failure of the civil-disobedience campaign he had called, and ended it. The British government again seized and imprisoned him in 1922. In 1930 the Mahatma proclaimed a new campaign for civil disobedience, calling upon the Indian population to refuse to pay taxes, particularly the tax on salt. The campaign was a two hundred mile march to the sea, in which thousands of Indians followed Gandhi from Ahmadabad to the Arabian Sea, where they made salt by vaporating sea water. Once more Gandhi was arrested, but he was released in 1931, halting the campaign after the British made compromises to his demands. In the same year Gandhi represented the Indian National Congress at a conference in London. In 1932, Gandhi began new civil-disobedience campaigns against the British. Gandhi fasted for long periods several times; these fasts were effective measures against the British, because revolution might well have broken out in India if he had died. In September 1932, while in jail, Gandhi undertook a fast unto death to improve the status of the Hindu Untouchable s. The British, by permitting the Untouchables to be considered as a separate part of the Indian voters, were, according to Gandhi, aid an injustice. Although he was himself a member of the Vaisya (merchant) caste, Gandhi was the great leader of the movement in India dedicated to terminating the unjust social and economic aspects of the caste system. .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 , .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .postImageUrl , .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .centered-text-area { min-height: 80px; position: relative; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 , .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74:hover , .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74:visited , .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74:active { border:0!important; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .clearfix:after { content: ""; display: table; clear: both; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 { display: block; transition: background-color 250ms; webkit-transition: background-color 250ms; width: 100%; opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #95A5A6; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74:active , .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74:hover { opacity: 1; transition: opacity 250ms; webkit-transition: opacity 250ms; background-color: #2C3E50; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .centered-text-area { width: 100%; position: relative ; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .ctaText { border-bottom: 0 solid #fff; color: #2980B9; font-size: 16px; font-weight: bold; margin: 0; padding: 0; text-decoration: underline; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .postTitle { color: #FFFFFF; font-size: 16px; font-weight: 600; margin: 0; padding: 0; width: 100%; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .ctaButton { background-color: #7F8C8D!important; color: #2980B9; border: none; border-radius: 3px; box-shadow: none; font-size: 14px; font-weight: bold; line-height: 26px; moz-border-radius: 3px; text-align: center; text-decoration: none; text-shadow: none; width: 80px; min-height: 80px; background: url(; position: absolute; right: 0; top: 0; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74:hover .ctaButton { background-color: #34495E!important; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .centered-text { display: table; height: 80px; padding-left : 18px; top: 0; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74 .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74-content { display: table-cell; margin: 0; padding: 0; padding-right: 108px; position: relative; vertical-align: middle; width: 100%; } .u316f0a09c960dd05fe5642e36bc91d74:after { content: ""; display: block; clear: both; } READ: Early Days Of Christopher Columbus Essay We will write a custom essay on Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi, also known as mahatma specifically for you for only $16.38 $13.9/page Order now In 1934 Gandhi formally resigned from politics. He raveled through India, teaching nonviolence. A few years later, in 1939, he again returned to active political life because of the pending federation of Indian principalities with the rest of India. Public unrest caused by the fast was so great that the colonial government intervened and the demands were granted. The Mahatma again became the most important political figure in India. When World War II broke out, the congress party and Gandhi demanded a declaration of war aims and their application to India. As a reaction to the unsatisfactory response from the British, the party decided not to support Britain in the war unless the country was granted complete and immediate independence. The British refused, offering compromises that were rejected. By 1944 the Indian struggle for Independence was in its final stages, the British government having agreed to independence on condition that the two contending nationalist groups, the Muslim league and the Congress party, should resolve their differences. Gandhi stood steadfastly against the partition of India but ultimately had to agree, in the hope that internal peace would be achieved after the Muslims demand for separation had been satisfied. India and Pakistan became separate states when the British granted India its independence in 1947. During the riots that followed the partition of India, Gandhi pleaded with Hindus and Muslims to live together peacefully. Riots engulfed Calcutta, one of the largest cities in India, and the Mahatma fasted until disturbance ceased. On January 13, 1948, he undertook another successful fast in New Delhi to bring about peace. Religious violence soon declined in India and Pakistan, and the teachings of Gandhi came to inspire nonviolent movements elsewhere. Within fifty five years of his self awakening after being evicted from South Africa train compartment, Gandhi managed to evict the British Empire from India.